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全世界最後一位紋面的
泰雅族勇士過世了
轉載自 We Love Taiwanese Aborigines

全世界最後一位紋面的泰雅族勇士過世了

高天生(Yawi Noming)爺爺來自苗栗泰安的天狗部落(B'anax),是之前全世界僅存唯一還留有紋面的泰雅族男性。有次他受訪時,曾這樣回憶起當初紋面的過程:

「紋面當天的過程,是用四根針固定在木頭上,樣子看起來像刷子,在臉上敲打…… 好痛!唉!」

對於泰雅族人來說,紋面了,才代表成年,可以娶親結婚。因此紋面後,高爺爺在 22 歲那年娶了同部落、同樣有紋面的高秋蘭(Puoh Kagi)奶奶,然後婚後兩個月就被日本人抓去南洋當兵了。高爺爺被抓去當兵,而高奶奶的處境也沒更好:她之後被日本人騙去當慰安婦,被迫懷孕、不敢回到部落,且健康一輩子受影響。

幸好高爺爺得以平安回來,並且擔起照顧高奶奶的重責,兩人扶持了 60 幾年,直到 6 年前高奶奶過世,於是這對台灣最後的「紋面國寶夫妻」就只剩下高爺爺一人了,台灣的紋面族人,也就又少了一位。如今高爺爺又在本月 15 日病逝,享耆壽 92 歲。從此之後,世界上最後一位紋面的泰雅族勇士離開了。現在全台灣,加上太魯閣族和賽德克族,也只剩下 7 位紋面耆老了。

19 世紀初的台灣史學家連橫當年到了南投埔里時,身處原鄉,作了《埔里社》四首曲子,其中有段詞是這樣的:

「蕭蕭新隘路,落落幾番家...... 馘頭誇出草,黥面比簪花。」

意思是這樣的:

「新開發的隘勇線道路上,風聲蕭蕭,只見疏疏落落的幾戶原民住家...... 他們以出草來表現自己的英勇,還有那臉上的紋面就好像戴了花一樣......」

連橫以南投當地原住民的出草和紋面風俗,來表達自己心中對於身處異地的不安。而這些習俗,也同樣讓後來統治台灣的日本政府感到不安。但日本人感到不安的,是各部落的團結、凝聚與向心力,恐危害日本人的政權,因此想藉由禁止紋面等傳統文化的延續,來加強政府對於各部落的統治。

這樣的故事,怎麼好像現在也似曾相似?

紋面不是黥面,但它的確是朵美麗的花簪。
衷心希望部落文化這朵美麗的花簪,可以一直讓我們戴下去。

註:
在找資料過程中,小編讀過一些泰雅族紋面耆老的口述資料,這些紋面耆老,雖然也知道不紋面就不是族人,但對於廢紋面都是樂觀其成。因為他們自己都是過來人,知道紋面過程有多痛苦,也不希望自己後代也要經歷這樣的苦楚。因此小編並不覺得需要說支持紋面云云之類的話。但若紋面這制度背後,是代表一個族群的精神,那麼由衷希望制度廢除後,大家別忘了背後的 gaga 精神。

請繼續把泰雅族的 gaga 精神延續下去!

Yawi Noming is a Tayal from the tribe B'anax in Miaoli, Taiwan, and was the last Tayal man who had the traditional facial tattoos. He recalled the process of having the tattoo in one personal inerview years ago, they used a wood fixed by four needles to prick around on his face, and then dyed with the dyes made from Taiwan red pine:

"My face was bleeding. It was so hurt!"

Yawi married his wife, Puoh Kagi, also a Tayal from B'anax who had a traditional facial tattoos, in his 22. Unfortunately, he was dispatched by the Japanese Colonial Government to Southeast Asia to fight against the Allies during the WWII just two months after he got married. His wife Puof Kagi was not luckier than him and was forced to serve as a comfort woman (慰安婦) in a Japanese military camp, for which she got pregnant and dared not to return to her tribe. Her life as a comfort woman in the camp was such a torture that had had great impact on her health afterwards.

Luckily, Yawi returned to Taiwan safely (and was the only tribal man that returned safely) and was able to take care of his wife. They continued their hard but happy life after reunion until 6 years ago when Puoh passed away. The famous Last Tattooed Couple became a single man. And now, 11 days ago on Jul 15, Yawi as the last Tayal man who still had the traditional facial tattoo died of disease, there is no more Tayal man with a traditional tattoo ever since. Now, including Truku, there are only six Taiwanese indigenous people, all women, who still have the traditional facial tattoos in Taiwan.

Heng Lian, a Chinese historian came to Taiwan in the early 19th century. After experiencing the exotic life in Central Taiwan, he left four songs called "Puli Tribe", wherein one of the songs is as following:

"The strong winds whistle on the path that fences off the Taiwanese indigenous people. Some indigenous people's huts that stand to the mountain rocks can be seen…… They show their bravery with the practice of headhunting, and their facial tattoos are as beautiful as flowers……"

When Heng Lian wrote down the passages, he felt uneasy to stay in a totally different culture there and was afraid actually, and so expressed her worry by describing the exotic customs and cultures of the local Tayal or Seediq.

The local indigenous cultures caused the Japanese people's worry, too, that came after Heng Lian; however, what the Japanese people were worried about was the preservation of the traditional cultures might make the indigenous people more united, and so forced the people to stop the facial tattoos and headhunting so that they could have better control over the local communities.

Does the situation sound familiar even nowadays?

We have no intention to promote the practice of the facial tattoos, but we do think that to say the core value of the tattoos, or 'gaga' in Tayal, is as beautiful as flowers is appropriate.

May the flowers blossom forever.

這張美美的圖來自|Photo:
http://ppt.cc/qGDJ(crazydean)